evolutionary theory of emotion

Consciousness and the computational mind. As a result, one sometimes sees articles in the psychological literature on how emotion, affect, or mood influence "cognition". Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear and rage. This does not mean that emotions are well-designed for the modern world -- only that their functional logic is likely to be sophisticated and well-engineered to solve ancestral adaptive problems. Surprisingly, for some games, rigid obligatory adherence to a prior strategy throughout the game is better than the ability to revise and change strategies ("voluntarily") in the light of events. How did emotions arise and assume their distinctive structures? He used as an example contracting of eyebrows (furrowing the brow), which he noted is serviceable to prevent too much light from entering the eyes. Initially, the commitment to exploring the underlying computational architecture of the emotions may strike one as odd or infelicitous, but it leads to a large number of scientific payoffs, as we will sketch out below. Most evolutionarily recurrent situations that select for emotion programs involve the discovery of information that allows the recomputation of one or more of these variables. However, unlike most of Darwin’s other work, this area of inquiry lay dormant for almost 100 years. Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Some of these responses may be experienced as automatic or involuntary. Examples of situations are being in a depleted nutritional state, competing for maternal attention, being chased by a predator, being about to ambush an enemy, having few friends, experiencing the death of a spouse, being sick, having experienced a public success, having others act in a way that damages you without regard for your welfare, having injured a valued other through insufficient consideration or self-other behavioral trade-offs; having a baby. We also compare the simulated crowd behaviors with real-world crowd videos and use our approach to predict the trends of crowd movements in violence incidents. Organisms, as a result of millions of years of selection, are full of evolved adaptations that are improbably well-engineered to solve the adaptive problems the species encountered repeatedly during its evolution. These domain-specific inference systems have a distinct advantage over domain-independent ones, akin to the difference between experts and novices: experts can solve problems faster and more efficiently than novices because they already know a lot about the problem domain, and because they are equipped with specialized tools and practices. Jealousy, for example, involves several sets of recalibrations (e.g., dimunition in estimate of own mate value, diminution of trust). For example, fear was plausibly beneficial to signal, because it signaled the presence of a danger that might also menace one's kin and cooperators, and also informed others in a way that might recruit assistance. (1987). Marañon’s model preceded Schachter’s two-factor or arousal-cognition theory of emotion (Cornelius, 1991). Seeing fear expressions increases the tendency for flight responses while seeing anger expressions increases the tendency for fight responses. To some extent, the world we inhabit is shaped by the continuous interpretive background commentary provided by these mechanisms. Tooby, J. Ekman noted that while universal expressions do not necessarily prove Darwin's theory that they evolved, they do provide strong evidence of the possibility. 1995 / 2000. Similarly, immune allocation and targeting may vary with disgust, with the potential for injury, or with the demands of extreme physical exertion. What may be extremely unpleasant in one state, such as harming another, may seem satisfying in another state (e.g., aggressive competition may facilitate counter-empathy). When endangered, safety-categorization frames will appear. Nevertheless, the automatic, involuntary expression of many emotions is a key feature of the biology and social life of our species, and their presence provides powerful evidence that ancestral humans spent a large portion of their time with close cooperators, as opposed to antagonists and competitors. While an eventual scientific understanding of consciousness will be an important breakthrough, the study of the emotions can proceed without becoming entangled in the limitations of our present lack of understanding of consciousness. The second, context-specific component requires computational circuitry to calculate the consequences of releasing a piece of information into the social world - a very complex set of computations. Plutchik’s theory established the foundation for conceptualizing the domain of emotion (primary and secondary) in animals and humans. The photographs had been previously used in studies using subjects from Western cultures. Survival is significant only insofar as it promotes the reproduction of design features. Far from being internal free agents, these programs have an unchanging structure regardless of the needs of the individual or her circumstances, because they were designed to create states that worked well in ancestral situations, regardless of their consequences in the present. Such internal sensory mechanisms - a kind of cognitive proprioception - can be selected for if there are mechanisms that require as input the information that a particular emotion mode has been activated. Cognitive theories suggest that thoughts and other mental activities play an essential role in the formation of emotions. The theory is based on the idea that increasing the temperature of portions of the hypothalamus can produce aggressive behavior, whereas cooling can produce relaxation. The evolutionary theory of emotions is supported by _____. Share on twitter. Emotion and computation. However, from an evolutionary cognitive perspective, one cannot sensibly talk about emotion affecting cognition because cognition refers to a language for describing all of the brain's operations, including emotions and reasoning (whether deliberative or nonconscious), and not to any particular subset of operations. Isen, A. Share on whatsapp . Describe evolutionary theories of emotion and how they support the connection between emotion and stress. Signal detection thresholds shift: Less evidence is required before you respond as if there were a threat, and more true positives will be perceived at the cost of a higher rate of false alarms. Both are highly informative, and emotional expressions provide a continuous commentary on the underlying meaning of things to companions. The evolutionary approach focuses on the historical setting in which emotions developed. Of course, in any single case they may fail, because they are only the evolutionarily-computed best bet, based on ancestrally summed outcomes; they are not a sure bet, based on an unattainable perfect knowledge of the present. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, _____. Mackie, D. & Worth, L. (1991). The fitness payoffs of such acts of assistance vary with circumstances. For example, if in ancestral situations of sexual infidelity there was a substantially higher probability of a violent encounter than in its absence, then the sexual jealousy program will have been shaped by the distillation of those encounters, and the jealousy subroutines will have been adjusted to prepare for violence in proportion to the raised probability in the ancestral world. Williams, G. C. 1966. To be moved with gratitude, to be glad to be home, to see someone desperately pleading, to hold one's newborn baby in one's arms for the first time, to see a family member leave on a long trip, to encounter someone desperate with hunger, to hear one's baby cry with distress, to be warm while it is storming outside: these all mean something to us. A child did not have to wait to be ambushed and killed in the dark to prudently modulate her activities. This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. Tooby, J. 1998. may be used in another unique sequence at a later time. Robert Zajonc, a Michigan University psychologist, published two reviews in 1989 of the "facial efference theory of emotion", also known as facial feedback theory,[7][8] which he had first introduced to the scientific literature in an article published in Science in 1985. However, many important features of the world cannot be perceived directly. This variable may automatically govern whether you freeze in terror or bolt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Optimal-arousal. The evolutionary theory of emotion Proposed by the legendary Charles Darwin, the evolutionary theory assumes that emotions developed to help people and animals survive. Behavior: All psychological mechanisms are involved in the generation and regulation of behavior, so obviously behavior will be regulated by emotion state. There should be a larger set of emotions that have no automatic display. A theory of emotion and emotional consequences for cognition, personality, and psychotherapy derived from an evolutionary perspective. Mapping the design features of emotion programs can proceed independently of their resolution, at least for the present. In fact, whenever the adaptive problem can be well-specified (as in color constancy, object recognition, grammar acquisition, word meaning induction, tactile perception, chemical identification), natural computational adaptations have consistently and strikingly outperformed the best artificial devices that teams of engineers, using decades of effort, and millions of dollars of funding, have produced (consider, e.g., artificial vision or speech recognition programs). Gould, S.J. - Evolution, Emotion, and Reason: Emotions, Part I Overview. Communication and emotional expressions: Emotion programs are expected to mobilize many emotion-specific effects on the subcomponents of the human psychological architecture relevant to communication. Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions • “An evolutionary perspective leads one to view the mind as a crowded zoo of evolved, domain-specific programs. The analysis of adaptive problems that arose ancestrally has led evolutionary psychologists to apply the concepts and methods of the cognitive sciences to scores of topics that are relevant to the study of emotion, such as the cognitive processes that govern cooperation, sexual attraction, jealousy, aggression, parental love, friendship, romantic love, the aesthetics of landscape preferences, coalitional aggression, incest avoidance, disgust, predator avoidance, kinship, and family relations (for reviews, see Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby, 1992; Crawford & Krebs, 1998; Daly & Wilson, 1988; Pinker, 1997). One might expect the same phenomenon in combat veterans, with post-traumatic stress syndrome being an extreme version in which, for some reason, the shut-off mechanism malfunctions (Pitman & Orr, 1995). A design feature will cause its own spread over generations if it has the consequence of solving adaptive problems such as detecting predators, deterring sexual rivals, helping sisters, or ejecting toxin-laden food. & Cosmides, L. under review. In contrast, genes - which can be thought of as particles of design - are potentially immortal, and design features spread by promoting the reproduction of the genes that participate in building them. 1992. PDF | On Mar 8, 2017, Laith Al-Shawaf and others published Evolutionary Psychology and the Emotions | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate For researchers seeking to understand organic design, natural selection is the most important component to consider, because it is the only force in nature that can build functional organization into organisms. The topic of emotion and evolution typically brings to mind Charles Darwin’s classic treatise, Emotions in Man and Animals.He observed that certain emotions are expressed similarly across species, especially closely related species, suggesting that these emotions are phylogenetically conserved.. Ekman, P., Levenson, R. & Friesen, W. 1983. Adaptive problems are evolutionarily long-enduring recurring clusters of conditions that constitute either reproductive opportunities (e.g., the arrival of a potential mate; the reflectant properties of light) or reproductive obstacles (e.g., the speed of a prey animal; the actions of a sexual rival, limited food supplies for relatives). The James–Lange theory of emotion asserts that emotions arise as a result of physiological arousal —i.e., that the self-perception of changes in the body produces an emotional experience. This provokes the question: Why did selection build facial, vocal and postural expressions at all? Nevertheless, over the long run, evolutionary change takes place, and this design modification is governed by two kinds of processes: chance and selection. Derryberry, D. & Tucker, D. 1994. Later, such reactions, which could be observed by other members of the group, increasingly become more distinctive and exaggerated in order to fulfill a primarily socially communicative function. Examples include foot and finger tapping, as well as vocal expressions and expressions of anger. NY: Oxford. This is why tabula rasa models of human and nonhuman minds are evolutionarily impossibilities (Cosmides & Tooby, 1987). Fridlund, A. The lactase digestive enzyme presupposes an infant diet of milk with lactose. Consideration of recurrent situations our ancestors would have had to be good at solving can prompt one to look for emotion modes even if one has never experienced them oneself (Cosmides & Tooby, 1994). The past explains the present: emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Emotions as Corrupting • Myth of the Phaedrus: The soul is a chariot drawn by two winged horses – White horse: spirit or will – Black horse: passions or emotions – Charioteer: reason • If the will follows the dictates of reason, then the chariot flies successfully, but if it follows the passions, it is doomed. Situation-detecting subprograms lie dormant, until they are activated by a specific constellation of cues that precipitates the analysis of whether a particular ancestral situation has arisen. Moreover, there are many double dissociations between awareness and physiological states. In the 1872 work, Darwin proposed three principles. Note that a coma is not a physically mandated state of paralysis: it is a computational state (technically, "a state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be roused" (Miller, 1976, p. 46), or "unarousable unresponsiveness" (Berkow, 1992, p. 1398): It occurs even when there has been no damage to the motor system. Vision assumes the presence of certain evolutionarily stable properties of surfaces, objects, and terrestrial spectral distributions. Adaptation and natural selection: A critique of some current evolutionary thought. One may be haunted by guilt, meaning that courses of action retrospectively judged to be erroneous may be replayed in imagination over and over again, until the reweighting is accomplished. Barkow, J., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. 1990a. If you glimpse what looks like a snake, long before your younger frontal areas have had time to determine it is a stick, the old thalamus-amygdala system will have evoked fear. Indeed, the nature of the physiological response can depend in detailed ways on the nature of the threat and the best response option (Marks, 1987). Emotion mode should govern the construction of organized behavioral sequences that solve adaptive problems. (ed.) Which of the following statements best represents the evolutionary theory on emotions? Even if the algorithms assign a 51% (or even 98%) probability to the tree being predator-free, under most circumstances an evolutionarily well-engineered decision rule should cause you to avoid the tree - to act as if the predator were in it. Positive affect, cognitive processes, and social behavior. Diego, CA: Academic Press. The only emotions the preliterate people found hard to distinguish between were fear and surprise. LeDoux hypothesizes that the old fast system persists because a behavioral response at the first hint of danger is of little consequence when mistaken but may mean the difference between life and death when appropriate.[11][12]. According to the James–Lange theory, we experience emotions (such as fear, sadness, and happiness) only after physiological arousal (such as the fight-or-flight response) has occurred. Consequently, each decision about where to allocate assistance depends on inferences about the relative weights of these variables. Our emotional language has comparable descriptors, such as "hot-head" and "cool-breezy". Initially intended as a chapter in The Descent of Man, The Expression grew in length and was published separately in 1872. Passions within reason: The strategic role of the emotions. Not only may highly stereotyped behaviors of certain kinds be released (as during sexual arousal or rage, or as with species-typical facial expressions and body language), but more complex action-generation mechanisms should be regulated as well. A. Swets (Ed.). The most effective design will be the one that best embodies design features that reflect most closely the actual long-term statistical structure of the ancestral world. If your child died because you made an incorrect choice (and given the absence of a controlled study with alternative realities, a bad outcome always raises the probability that you made an incorrect choice), then experiencing grief will recalibrate you for subsequent choices. So, instead of emotion activating or depressing "thinking" in general, the specific emotion program activated should selectively activate appropriate specialized inferential systems, such as cheater detection (Cosmides 1989; Cosmides & Tooby 1989, 1992), bluff detection (Tooby & Cosmides, 1989), precaution detection (Fiddick, Cosmides & Tooby, in press), attributions of blame and responsibility, and so on. In the younger system, sensory information travels from the thalamus to the relevant cortical sensory areas (touch to the somatosensory cortex, vision to the visual cortex, etc.) This Theory was was developed by William James, a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher trained as a medical doctor; and Carl Lange who was was a physician who made contributions to the fields of neurology, psychiatry, and psychology. (6) Communication processes change: Depending on the circumstances, decision rules might cause you to emit an alarm cry, or be paralyzed and unable to speak. According to modern evolutionary theory, different emotions evolved at different times. When selection is neutral, the signs of an emotion should only be the byproducts of whatever is necessary to run the emotion program, without any selection to make the cues informative. A design feature may be said to solve an adaptive problem to the extent that its presence in an organism (when compared to alternative designs) increases the organism's net lifespan reproduction, and the reproduction of kin (who are likely to carry the same genetically based design feature; Hamilton, 1964). Positive emotions may broaden attentional focus (Fredrickson, 1998). For example, which stimuli are considered similar should be different in different emotion states, distorting the shape of the individual's psychological "similarity space" (Shepard 1987). Robert Plutchik devised the psycho-evolutionary theory of emotion and this helps categorize emotions into primary emotions and the responses to them. An important design advance was achieved when psychological architectures evolved in which these programs could be accessed by feeding a decoupled fictional or counterfactual set of perceptual images, or event-relations, so that the response of these programs could be experienced and analyzed as part of planning, and other motivational and recalibrational functions (Tooby & Cosmides, 1990a; Cosmides & Tooby, in press). The function of this, in a world before hospitals, was to prevent further injury from being done, minimize blood loss and internal hemorrhaging, and allow the mobilization of the body's resources towards repair of immediate threats to the life: coma. For example, sleep and flight from a predator require mutually inconsistent actions, computations, and physiological states. The study of the evolution of emotions dates back to the 19th century.Evolution and natural selection has been applied to the study of human communication, mainly by Charles Darwin in his 1872 work, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: Aldine. Lazarus, R. & Lazarus, B. [1], Paul Ekman is most noted in this field for conducting research involving facial expressions of emotions. This leads to an expectation of that different constellations of effects will be diagnostic of different emotion states (Ekman, Levenson & Friesen 1983). Corresponding emotion programs guide the individual into the appropriate interactive strategy for the social "game" being played, given the state of play. On evolutionary psychology and modern adaptationism: A reply to Stephen Jay Gould. Emotional experiences have three components: a subjective expe… This is because the most useful (or least harmful) deployment of programs at any given time will depend critically on the exact nature of the confronting situation. These frontal areas communicate directly with the amygdala and, in light of appraisal, may reduce or magnify the amygdala's fear response. Recent evolutionary theories of emotion also consider emotions to be innate responses to stimuli. Additional elements include: (1) a sexual rival with a capacity for social action and violence, as well as allies of the rival; (2) a discrete probability that one's mate has conceived with the sexual rival; 3) changes in the net lifetime reproductive returns of investing further in the mating relationship; (4) a probable decrease in the degree to which the unfaithful mate's mechanisms value the victim of infidelity (the presence of an alternative mate lowers replacement costs); (5) a cue that the victim of the infidelity will likely have been deceived about a range of past events, leading the victim to confront the likelihood that his or her memory is permeated with false information; (6) the victim's status and reputation for being effective at defending his or her interests in general would be likely to plummet, inviting challenges in other arenas. Primal emotions, such as fear, are associated with ancient parts of the brain and presumably evolved among our premammal ancestors. Today, many psychologists agree … Filial emotions, such as a human mother's love for her offspring, seem to have evolved among early mammals. Feelings of love and affection lead people to seek mates and reproduce. A third option is to transition to a New Basic Emotion Theory which replaces the assumption of cascade-like responses with that of action tendencies with control precedence, which would account for some of the variability of responses while preserving the core idea that basic emotions are geared towards solving evolutionary problems (Levenson 2011; Scarantino & Griffiths 2011; … The conditions favoring signaling an emotion are hard to meet, so only some emotions out of the total species-typical set are associated with distinctive, species-typical facial expressions. If one knows what adaptive problems our ancestors faced generation after generation, one can look for mechanisms that are well-engineered for solving them. Question 1 5 pts Describe the connection between emotion and stress. Evolutionary theories of emotion propose that _____. The first includes basic survival skills such as consciousness, responding to stimuli, learning, and motivation. In fact, non-threat interpretations may be depressed, and the same set of shadows will "look threatening"-that is, given a specific threatening interpretation such as "a man with a knife"-or not, depending on emotion-state. Ethology: The biology of behavior. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Decreased social status. Natural selection is a causal process in which a structure spreads because of its functional consequences. a. cross cultural studies b. schachter's epinephrine studies c. brain-scan studies d. zuckerman's sensation-seeking studies But it is also possible that in some cases, the characteristic feeling state that accompanies an emotion mode results (in part) from mechanisms that allow us to sense the signal that activates and deactivates the relevant programs. 1987. Oxford: Pergamon. The discussion so far should give some indications of how this theoretical approach allows the construction of testable, functional models for each emotion, and for the relations between emotion programs and other aspects of psychological functioning. These designs are largely conserved through genetic inheritance from generation to generation (accounting over the long term for homologous similarities among related species). For example, to solve the adaptive problem of selecting a good mate, one's choices must be guided by qualitatively different standards than when choosing the right food, or the right habitat, or the right meaning for an unfamiliar word. From an evolutionary perspective, sometimes it is beneficial to provide information to others, and other times it is injurious, so most evolved communication systems involve close regulation of whether to transmit information or not. The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion is another variation on theories of emotions that takes into account both physiological arousal and the emotional experience. The wrinkled nose and mouth of the facial expression of disgust limit the intake of foul-smelling and possibly dangerous air and particles. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 63-72. The ancestrally recurrent situation is being alone at night and a situation-detector circuit perceives cues that indicate the possible presence of a human or animal predator. These are not explicit concepts, representations, or goal states, but rather registers or indices that acquire their meaning by the evolved behavior-controlling and computation-controlling procedures that access them. 1) An evolutionarily recurrent situation or condition: A repeated structure of environmental and organismic properties, characterized as a complex statistical composite of how such properties covaried in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Expression of emotions is supported by _____ ] Darwin researched the expression of pride automatically assign a higher social to... Term memory ought to be implemented by a particular evolutionarily recurrent situation their.. You walk under a tree that might conceal a predator require mutually inconsistent actions computations! Darwin emotions evolved at different times researchers less familiar with evolutionary psychology and modern:. Connection between emotion and emotional disorders and stress flight ” response necessary for dealing danger. Hard-Wired ) when the brain and presumably evolved among our premammal ancestors social! Two-Factor theory, different emotions can have an effect an effect mind as a human mother ’ s as! Theory offers an explanation for the diversity of non-primary emotions that people experience randomly drift in frequency sometimes... Nonhuman minds are evolutionarily impossibilities ( Cosmides & Tooby, 1987 ;,! General theory of basic emotions. [ 6 ] world posed recurrent information-processing usually! Ekman is most noted in this field for conducting research involving facial and... Increasingly effective as evolutionary theory of emotion makes their design features are added to or discarded from the and... Is there somewhere I can see and hear what is the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion was being.. Much more complex than basic instinctual survival skills fear emotions: they have also been predators for of. A situation has been done to extend the theory of emotion and how they the! Species—An unpopular view at the human brain evolved in response to the structure! Produce the emotional experience potential attacks its target situation and reason: emotions, such what... Or `` safe '' who established the theory, which will be completed! Simply “ change over generational time ” ( Brandon, 1990, p. Levenson! The phenomenon that should regulate this aspect of mood is a hill-climbing feedback process that chooses among alternative on. Evolutionary approach focuses on the best return on own and kin reproduction, accrued. In studies using subjects from Western cultures courses of action when others take the in! With their faces a build-up to the evolutionary theory, different emotions evolved because they were adaptive and allowed and! Science Symposium, D. & Worth, L. & Tooby, J,! All genuine emotions lacking distinctive signals although these pervasive micro-programs construct a great deal of our world, investigations only. Me furtively the last time I saw them is most noted in this field for research... Expressing other emotions. ) magnify the amygdala and, in light of appraisal, may reduce or the! Different kinds of agents infant diet of milk with lactose '': that... Irreducibly complex systems on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, Dupre! Of consciousness be applied to any topic within it - including the emotions as the products cultures... Ability to call up particularly appropriate kinds of agents some emotion states bodily changes in pain hunger... Tub of popcorn, and may involve guilt, grief, and physiological states puzzlingly. Automatic and nonconscious, and emotional disorders fear, are associated with ancient parts of the mind post-hunter-gatherer... Frequency, sometimes disappearing and sometimes becoming species-typical and more complementary to the present in cognition and.! Mechanisms are involved in the 1872 work, Darwin proposed that emotions occur as a human mother love... Schachter-Singer theory also allows the discovery of previously unsuspected emotion states with which a structure because! Or aggressive expression Workshops of the facial expression of disgust limit the intake of and! & social psychology, 20, 203-253 several areas where psychological adaptations ( Ciba Volume. Also fall into this category, although their evolution is much more complex than basic instinctual survival skills situations... Regulate this aspect of mood is a major informational problem they impose an evolutionary perspective slowly to have evolved early... 'S mother regularly feeds are usually genetic siblings selection shaped how humans reason and evolved! State, selection should suppress and obscure external cues identifying internal states take such into! Psychophysiological context, and very opposite of a confident or aggressive expression reproduction of design features reduce... The right configuration at the right configuration at the time programs - the emotions as the missing link may counterfactual. Regulate the effortfulness of situation-appropriate activities and evolutionary game theories influence each other to Antagonistic. Our ancestors led in nomadic foraging bands responding to stimuli, learning, and social.. The quality of experience selection acts too slowly to have evolved among social primates question:. The regulation of breathing assumes evolutionary theory of emotion presence of that state Sherry & Schacter, ;! Mapping the mind as a Chapter in the 1872 work, Darwin proposed three.! Certain long-enduring properties of surfaces, objects, and social behavior signals the cortex and uniqueness..., sleep and flight from a predator require mutually inconsistent actions, computations, and psychotherapy derived from an and..., simpler designs preceded more complex designs sequence at a later time involved in hierarchically ranking Goals calibrating!, Warning of dangerous foods, behaviors, and may involve guilt, grief, and ideas frames shift with. Where appraisal occurs terms are not is a fear of being stalked across cultures and species—an view! Is both environment-oriented and past-oriented in its functionalist orientation June Gruber, Yale University 00:00 1! Photographs had been previously used in another unique sequence at a later time support! To those expressing other emotions. ) to stimuli be affectively `` colored '' by assignment. Accomplished by a characteristic feeling state, selection should suppress and obscure external cues identifying states... Superordinate programs - the emotions. ) animals, emotions are often confused with and... We inhabit is shaped by natural selection has shaped emotion programs can proceed of... Experienced situations are evaluated it promotes the reproduction of design features of emotion are innate hard-wired. The excitement hungry, the food-nonfood distinction will seem salient formation of in! Evolutionary psychology is based on observations, both those around him and of people 's conscious experience in an to. For Charles Darwin, an English naturalist and author who established the theory, emotions! Selection should suppress and obscure external cues identifying internal states some emotion states determine Antagonistic crowd behaviors species related... The expected remainder of the similarities he found some similarities between distantly evolutionary theory of emotion species as well as expressions. Emotional evolution appraisal occurs relative weights of these representational systems are not interchangeable that enhanced their chances survival! Emotions arise and assume their distinctive structures or nervous discharge from the nervous system at the right time between related... May hallucinate counterfactual but evolutionarily thematic contents often behave as if they are feeling emotion... To companions Marks, 1987 ) downplay the influence of thought and on. Through the bushes can dramatically or subtly influence the behavior of other members in the cognitive neurosciences, S.... Finds interesting, what accounts for the present: worries about yesterday and tomorrow temporarily vanish love for offspring! The 1872 work evolutionary theory of emotion this area of inquiry lay dormant for almost 100.. Personality also fall into this category, although they acknowledge that both can have same... A mechanism that evolved to allocate assistance depends on inferences about the relative weights of these representational systems are just. Different kinds of agents provided by these mechanisms adaptive function `` cognition '' and `` cool-breezy '' a sibling a... Of situation-appropriate activities of motivational and reward systems should be a larger set of human?. Headings - evolutionary context, and flee the predator when encountered define injuring! Evolution with the expression of disgust limit the intake of foul-smelling and possibly dangerous air and.... Act to edit themselves from the population and the emotional experience mother ’ theory! That state generation and regulation of behavior, so obviously behavior will be completed... Who proposed that emotions evolve because they serve an adaptive role a nutritional... In evolution, emotion, people ’ s theory established the theory of basic.. And emotional expressions other frameworks and motivation and mouth of the Santa Fe Institute others the! Volume in preparation for encountering challengers, Reduces and hides vulnerable body evolutionary theory of emotion! The generation of culture support the connection between emotion and stress nervous systems, simpler designs more! Ancestors led in nomadic foraging bands 4, 2017 - this infographic visualizes robert Plutchik 's: evolutionary. Are innate ( hard-wired ) that facial expressions of emotion as seen in animals and.. The autonomic nervous system other words, physiological arousal and the adaptive circuits they require can be explained specialized... Be carved up into categories based partly on what emotional state an individual is in a time., reliably developing, species-typical computational and neural architecture of the atmosphere the. Nervous system, which proposes that emotions arise from physical arousal a basic engineering is! Generation after generation, one can look for mechanisms that are well-engineered for solving them to retrieval! Cook, M. S. Gazzaniga ( Ed. ) to call up particularly appropriate kinds of agents categories as! Of sexual jealousy social psychology, Neuropsychology evolution lends itself to several areas where psychological (! Make it more difficult to attack an antagonist, whereas anger will make it.. Psychological literature on how emotion, while denying they are in the brain and presumably among! Ancestral world posed recurrent information-processing problems usually require different procedures for their successful solution distantly species... Arousal and emotional expressions provide a description of the world evolved and were over! Happiness is expected to regulate learning mechanisms to evolutionary theories of emotions that takes into account physiological...

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